The city of Damascus is considered to be the oldest city in the world. The country has many human settlements dating back to the Stone Age. In ancient times, the country flourished in the fertility of its soil and as a route for commercial convoys or armies. It had successive strong empires, On the entire Fertile Crescent, and emerged since the eleventh century BC Aramaic civilization, which continued the identity of the country’s basic civilization until most of the majority until the eleventh century AD. In the Antic era, the country was part of the Seleucid Empire and during the Middle Ages after the conquest of the Levant, the country was the capital of the Umayyad state – the largest Islamic country in history in terms of area – and during the Abbasid state a number of emirates and influential countries, It lasted until the First World War. After the war, Syrian independence was announced on 8 March 1920 by the Syrian General Conference. Subsequently, gradually, until 1936, five entities within the Syrian Republic, which were fully independent in 1946, were reunited.